5 things that affect the electric scooter range
The electric scooter range is affected by more external factors than any other performance characteristics. So this article will tell you 5 things that affect the electric scooter range.
The short answer is that the specified range of electric scooters is usually the range that can be achieved under ideal conditions. This is not a strategy to over-market or reduce scooter buyers. Manufacturers must control the conditions of range testing and specify them in order to publish meaningful range information.
The responsible manufacturer will clearly state the conditions and circumstances leading to its specified scope. A good example is the recently released Inmotion V10 electric unicycle (EUC). The announced cruising range of the V10 is “~70km”. The manufacturer is even careful enough to use the “~” symbol to indicate that this is an approximation. It is said that this range can be reached under these conditions:
When riding at full power
75 kg load
At a temperature of 25°C
Ride at an average speed of 15 km/h
On the smooth sidewalk
They even stated in advance that “riding habits, environment, temperature, road conditions, load and other factors will affect the cruising range.” This careful and clear treatment of scope may be related to the fierce competition among EUC manufacturers at the time of writing. EUC manufacturers launched a number of high-end new models at this time, vying for the attention of car fans who care about performance.
Many electric scooter manufacturers do not provide consumers with such details, but only publish a single figure for the range. When customers measure range by face value, this may cause customer dissatisfaction.
In this article, we will show you how to calculate the battery life, and more importantly, what factors will consume the life of the battery, so you can avoid these factors and maximize the mileage.
The battery capacity of a scooter is similar to the size of a car’s fuel tank. The more fuel you can carry, the longer your driving time. An electric motor is like the displacement of a car’s engine: the larger it is, the more powerful it is, but the more power it consumes.
Through some basic arithmetic and high school physics, we can calculate the theoretical range based on the specifications of batteries and motors.
Above: Once we know the specifications of the scooter (such as battery capacity and motor power), we can calculate the cruising range.
Suppose we want to calculate the mileage of a typical medium-sized electric scooter with the following specifications:
Battery: 36 volts (V) 10.5 amp-hour (Ah)
Motor power*: 250 watts (W)
The first formula is what we all know:
Distance (Km) = Speed (Km/hr) x Time (hr)
This formula means that if we know the speed at which we are riding (assuming we are riding at a consistent speed) and the duration that the scooter can maintain this speed until the battery is depleted, we can calculate the distance it can travel.
For the speed, we will use the highest speed at which we can ride an electric scooter. The speed limit for personal mobile devices (PMD) in Singapore at this writing is 25 km/h. So let’s use this number to calculate the speed.
For TIME, we can calculate it based on battery capacity and motor power.
For this, we need to calculate the battery capacity. This is measured in watt hours (Wh), the amount of energy (in watts) it can provide in one hour.
Watt hour (Wh) = Ampere hour (Ah) x Voltage (V)
So the capacity of our battery is 10.5Ah x 36V = 378Wh
Knowing the energy in the battery, and understanding the power of the motor (and the resulting consumption), we can now calculate the time it takes for the motor to consume this energy:
TIME (hr) = battery capacity / power consumption = 378Wh / 250W = 1.512 hr
Now we have SPEED and TIME to put in our first formula:
Distance = speed x time = 25 kilometers/hour x 1.512 hours = 37.8 kilometers.
Therefore, theoretically and theoretically, your scooter can drive you 37.8 kilometers before the battery is completely exhausted.
* Note: Some manufacturers indicate peak power rather than nominal (average) power. If two numbers are displayed at the same time, use the nominal power for conservative calculations.
However, in practice, the story of scope does not end there. Because the calculations so far only considered the characteristics of the battery and the motor. We did not consider the rider, riding conditions and other factors in our calculations.
Let us learn more about the factors that have a negative impact on mileage, and what you can do to maximize the mileage of electric scooters.
Electric scooter range killer
Broadly speaking, these conditions or operations affect the scope:
Insufficient tire pressure
Active horse riding
Ride or store the scooter in high temperatures
Let us study each one in detail.
It is common sense that electric scooters must work harder to move heavier riders than lighter riders.
All electric scooters have an indication of the maximum safe payload. Most of the rated weight is 100 kg, some larger models are 120 kg. Some high-end or heavy-duty models carry up to 150 kg. The maximum load is different from the optimal load. The common practice of electric scooter manufacturers on the market today is to use a rider weight load of approximately 75 Kg for performance testing. This is understandable, because 75 kg is about the average weight of a healthy adult male.
In other words, in most cases, any rider weighing more than 75 kg can immediately expect the achievable range to be lower than the published figure.
When a large rider buys a light scooter for portability, overloading often occurs.
It is understandable that some riders who use electric scooters for the first and last mile commuting need to take their electric scooters to trains or buses. This is a good reason to choose light electric scooters such as Inokim Mini or Zero 2.0.
For large riders, these scooters may be underpowered, but if the rider understands that there are trade-offs and is willing to give up some range of portability, that’s okay. When buying a scooter, choose an electric scooter whose motor power matches your body size and weight as much as possible. This is especially important if you are a big man.
During the purchase process, the electric scooter sales staff can provide you with some insights about the range and the power of the scooter motor. Filter the opinions of salespeople to control sales commission motives, and you will understand which scooter power is right for you. If your route has hills, you will usually choose a higher-powered scooter (see “Cycling Uphill” later in this article).
For the scooter itself, reduce the weight of the scooter by removing unnecessary accessories and accessories (such as bags, bottle holders, etc.). Some countries may even have regulations restricting the weight of electric personal mobile devices.
Insufficient tire pressure
Both the bicycle and automotive industries know that under-inflated tires can lead to reduced fuel economy. There is no need to delve into complex physics or mathematics. The simple but practical explanation is that the under-pressure wheel causes the wheel to deviate from its optimal shape. This especially leads to an increase in the contact surface between the wheel and the ground. Generally, more contact area means more friction.
There is no scientific research conducted specifically on the tire pressure performance of electric scooters. However, research on automobiles shows that there is a clear correlation between rolling resistance and tire pressure. The closer the tire pressure is to the pressure expected by the manufacturer, the lower the rolling resistance. When the tire is even slightly lower than the optimal specified pressure, the rolling efficiency will be reduced.
It needs to be emphasized that avoiding under-pressure is different from encouraging tire over-pressurization, which has its own set of problems. It is important to maintain the correct pressure as indicated by the scooter/tyre manufacturer. This pressure is usually specified in the user manual. The pressure displayed by the tire itself is usually the maximum pressure, not the optimal pressure.
If you don’t have one, please use a tire pump with a pressure gauge. This is essential. You can use a single device to check the tire pressure and pump up the tires. Check the tire pressure every two weeks and inflate if it is lower than the optimal pressure. Maintaining sufficient pressure has the additional effect of reducing the chance of a tire blowout and increasing the service life of the tire.
Gradation has a huge impact on the cruising range of electric scooters. If you ride a bicycle, you will know from experience that even if the slope is very gentle, riding uphill is much more laborious than riding on flat ground.
No complicated calculations are required, just say that any uphill climb on your route will reduce the range indicated in your scooter manual by a large part. Given that the cruising range of the scooter is calculated on a completely flat ground, but your actual route is not like this, it is unlikely that you will match the cruising range announced by the scooter.
Putting things in context, many riders buy electric scooters to avoid them walking or biking up difficult slopes. Therefore, the range loss due to the slope may be a fair trade-off for saving effort. If possible and necessary, choose a longer route around the slope. Unless the detour is too long, you will usually still make positive progress within that range.
Active horse riding
Physics tells us that stationary objects tend to remain stationary, and moving objects tend to remain in motion. Energy is required to move stationary objects, increase speed, or slow down.
The general energy consumption (from lowest to highest) related to the type of scooter activity is listed here:
The scooter runs at a constant speed
The scooter is braking*
The scooter is accelerating from a lower speed to a higher speed
The scooter accelerates from a resting position
*Only applicable to scooters with electronic brakes
For electric scooters that use electronic brakes (as opposed to bicycle-style physical brakes), they also consume battery power when braking, because the scooters use motors to stop movement to brake.
In short, the more frequently and faster you accelerate or decelerate during riding, the shorter your cruising range.
When it comes to range, patience is a virtue. Accelerate gently without rushing to reach your cruising speed. Maintain a constant speed for as long as possible. The optimal speed is usually the highest speed the motor can maintain without sounding like struggling. This is called “cruising” speed for a reason. It should be a comfortable speed, of course not the maximum speed.
If you are riding an electric scooter with electronic brakes, if possible, slide to a stop instead of braking hard. By riding in this way, you will not only get more kilometers, but will also be safer. As a bonus, your tires and brake pads will also have a longer service life.
Ride or store the scooter in high temperatures
We cannot control the temperature of the ride. But it is useful to know what temperature is best for your scooter. The main concern here is the health of the battery, which is directly related to the mileage.
The optimal working temperature of the battery is similar to the comfortable temperature for people. Battery manufacturers usually regard 20°C or a little lower as the best operating temperature, and 20°C to 30°C is the acceptable operating temperature range.
For convenience, it is tempting to put your electric scooter in the trunk of the car. But this exposes the battery to unhealthy high temperatures on warm days.
This temperature provides the best battery capacity (which means it can be charged and discharged more completely and easily), and is most conducive to battery life in terms of total charging cycles (cycle life). At temperatures above or below this range, both capacity and life will begin to be affected. As the battery capacity decreases, your cruising range will also decrease.
In terms of temperature, think of your electric scooter as a creature, just as sensitive to warmth and cold as you. Avoid storing your electric scooter in the trunk of the car in the hot summer sun, or park it in direct sunlight for a long time. When storing, the scooter can be protected indoor and outdoor in a cool, dry place and not affected by the winter temperature. It’s comfortable when it’s comfortable.
Unless you are the kind of rider who died on a scooter and bought a new rider every year, paying attention to the factors that affect the cruising range of your electric scooter will help you get the best mileage and longer riding life. Thanks to the battery It is the most expensive part of the scooter, so you can also save money.
It is also important to understand that the number of charging cycles (cycle life) of electric scooter batteries is limited. This is usually about 500-600 cumulative charging cycles. Over time, their ability to hold charge gradually decreases. Therefore, for ordinary riders, after a period of high-intensity use, it may be difficult to avoid replacing the battery. When the time is right, tap your scooter to do a great job and accept the need to rejuvenate it with a brand new battery or retire it completely.
If you interest in electric scooter and have any other questions, please let us know in the section below.