Need to know about Electric Bike Speed Controller
One of the most important features of an e-bike is the controller. It basically acts as the brain of the e-bike and helps you manage every aspect of the bike. Connecting all the electrical components on your e-bike, including the battery, motor, and throttle; the controller allows you to control the power of the motor, the speed of the bike, acceleration, and more.
Here’s everything you need to know about e-bike controllers, including how to install them.
1. What is an e-bike controller?
An e-bike controller is the key component that connects all of the electrical components on your bike in one place. This includes the motor, battery, throttle, pedal assist, display and various sensors. Essentially, the controller is a small computer that acts as the heart of the e-bike, through which you can manage the overall functionality of the bike.
Typically, controllers are housed in sealed, protective cases because they are exposed to the natural environment. However, some designs can be mounted inside the bike frame and hidden from view.
When choosing a controller for your e-bike, it’s critical to find one that is compatible with other bike components (e.g., motor, display, battery, etc.). The following factors should be considered.
2. How to choose the right controller
If you want to use a controller on your e-bike, there are several factors to consider.
To match the voltage
The first thing is to make sure that the controller can handle the voltage and current requirements. This means that you need to check that the controller voltage and power are the same as the motor when making your selection, as running too high a voltage through the controller can lead to overheating.
By using the correct voltage and power, you will reduce the amount of heat generated by the controller and increase the stability and reliability of its operation.
To match power ratings
If the motor is controlled by an unmatched controller, the motor will not reach its claimed maximum speed.
Running an unmatched controller, either above or below the voltage of the motor and batteries, will not only affect the performance of the motor, but will also increase the risk of overheating and connector burnout.
The motor controller you choose should be compatible with the motor’s power rating and the battery voltage you are using.
Matching Motor Type
You should also consider the type of controller to match the type of motor your e-bike is currently using.
Brushless E-Bike Controller
If your e-bike is equipped with a brushless motor, you will need to choose a brushless motor controller.
Some controllers require Hall sensors, while others can operate without them. The Hall sensor on the motor detects the rotation of the motor and the controller generates power based on the sensor signal. Therefore, if you have a sensor-enabled e-bike motor, you should select the controller mode with Hall sensors.
If you have a sensorless motor, you will need to use a brushless motor controller that supports sensorless operation.
Sine Wave Controller
One of the most popular controller types is the sine wave controller, which is known for its low noise output.
It can help your bike get better performance when climbing hills or carrying weight. On the other hand, sine wave controllers will use more power and therefore cost you more. In addition, they are limited to matched motors
You also need to know that sine wave controllers can provide smoother acceleration with switched reluctance motors.
Square Wave Controllers
A square wave controller is another type of controller that has a different phase voltage waveform than a sine wave controller. It generates a rectangular waveform.
Compared to sine wave controllers, square wave controllers are cheaper and more robust during sudden braking or acceleration. They can also be used with different types of motors.
However, there are some disadvantages to square wave controllers: they generally produce high noise levels and do not produce uniform or smooth control, and square wave controllers make it difficult to improve motor efficiency when travelling uphill or carrying heavy loads.
If a speed controller is available, it can be plugged directly into the e-bike and used. Care should be taken when installing them, however, as the connectors may be identical. However, the wiring pattern of the connector may be different from that of the original controller.
3. How to connect the e-bike controller?
The wire type and wire terminals (connectors) of the e-bike controller may be different in different controller designs. You will need the e-bike controller wiring diagram to ensure proper wiring connections.
Most e-bike controllers have these wires for the motor, battery, brake, throttle/accelerator, or PAS pedal assist (some controllers have both types of wires, some have one or the other).
There are more wires in advanced controllers, such as a display or speedometer, three speeds, reverse, LED lights, etc.
Here is a controller wiring diagram.
The controller is the brain of the e-bike, connecting the display, battery, throttle and pedal assist. It receives signals from them and then sends feedback to make the e-bike travel correctly.
A good controller should last 4 to 5 years. Choose the best quality e-bike controller for your e-bike!